Sorry for the late reply!
I wish I could’ve made that chart into a better infographic (like a colored wheel or something), but I’m glad the point got across! Character dialogue is about more than just speech patterns–it’s about the way a character communicates overall.
However, to simplify: if you want a great rundown of a single sentence translated through different speech patterns (something we always deal with in manga translation/adaptation), check out William Flanagan’s amazing list in the middle of this article.
I get annoyed when all characters have the same voice, too. Joss Whedon falls into this sometimes–the guy’s a great writer, but he has an almost slavish dedication to the quip, which makes all his characters start sounding the same after a while. If they ALL sound witty, who’s supposed to be the witty one? O.o